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Indigenous religion in the Philippines ppt

In the country, indigenous peoples were referred to as 'national minorities' by drillings by the PNOC, arsenic has crept through the veins of Mt.Apo, poisoning - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 1c4703-OGNl Upon this indigenous religious base two foreign religions were introduced -- Islam and Christianity -- and a process of cultural adaptation and synthesis began that is still evolving. Spain introduced Christianity to the Philippines in 1565 with the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi. Earlier Catholicism and spirituality in the Philippines extends beyond just being Catholic. In fact the way religion is practiced in the Philippines is very unique in comparison to the form Christianity takes in the west or other areas of the globe. Filipino Catholicism is practiced alongside and influenced by precolonial indigenous religions and. Course Description This course is a study on the social, economic and political impact on the Philippine's indigenous people as they struggle toward the changes brought about by the demands for globalization. GE Elective 2 : Philippine Indigenous Communities is a three (3) unit course that deals with the different cultural practices of the Indigenous peoples in the Philippines

PPT - Mr

Indigenous Religions By Murphie, Chloe and Reed. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website Upon this indigenous religious base two foreign religions were introduced -- Islam and Christianity -- and a process of cultural adaptation and synthesis began that is still evolving. Spain introduced Christianity to the Philippines in 1565 with the arrival of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi

Ppt - the State of Indigenous Peoples in The Philippines

The religious beliefs were as varied as the languages of the country. However, there were certain areas of common ground that existed among many of the peoples throughout the islands. In this webpage, we will try to organize some of these core beliefs an present as much as possible a Philippine system, or systems, of belief and cosmology The materials and discussion centered on the different rules, roles, and nuances that are present in mainstream and indigenous religions. In this assignment you will explain the definition of religion, as well as common elements in the indigenous religions. | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to download well-being of indigenous peoples with due regard to their: beliefs customs traditions, and institutions (Section 39, IPRA) within the framework of national unity and development. (Section 22, Article II, 1987 Philippine Constitution

The Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines: A Background The Philippines has a total land area of 30 Million Hectares. Half of the country is hilly and mostly categorized as a Forest Zone and part of the Public Domain. As of the year 2005, the country has a population of 85 Million and other religious bodies outside the Roman Catholic Church. These bodies are numerous. As Dr. Elwood indicates, there are in the Philippines some 350 organized religious groups. Most of these are of post-War origin. One hundred churches or sects were organized within 12 years after World War II. The number of indigenous groups organized after. Download The Indigenous PowerPoint templates (ppt) and Google Slides themes to create awesome presentations. Free + Easy to edit + Professional + Lots backgrounds According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, 177,147 of those were exclusively Tribal Religions and not significantly syncretized with any other religion. Conclusion In 1521 there were approximately 400, 027 people in the Philippines practicing tribal religions exclusively, or syncretized with Islam and Hinduism e would first like to record our gratitude to the indigenous peoples of the Philippines, particularly those from the Cordillera and Mindanao, who unconditionally shared their time, stories, and dreams. Our thanks go to Ambassador Howard Dee, Presidential Advisor for Indigenous People

Filipino values as cultural prods

Philippine Indigenous COmmunities PPT (1)

  1. The Indigenous Peoples of Mindanao and the Philippines have similar beliefs and systems of worshiping the Divine Creator. This worship and belief systems of the IPs are connected to nature and is not religion. It is for this reason that Indigenous Peoples have a strong connection to the environment - they know that the environment is their.
  2. Indigenous Philippine folk religions are the distinct native religions of various ethnic groups in the Philippines, where most follow belief systems in line with animism.Generally, these indigenous folk religions are referred to as Anitism or Bathalism or the more modern and less Tagalog-centric Dayawism.. The profusion of different terms arises from the fact that these indigenous religions.
  3. Catholicism. The Philippines remained a Spanish colony for nearly three hundred years, ending with the conclusion of the Spanish-American War in 1898 (Skowronek 1998:60). Religion and ritual practices were important to both the indigenous Filipinos and the Spanish colonizers. In the pre-Hispanic Philippines, ritual leaders known as catalonan o
  4. ant views are that of animism, which is the belief that even non-living entities such trees and plants have spirits. Indigenous religions are characterized by the worship of various deities, as opposed to the monotheistic religions
  5. g pot.The healer rubs essential oils over the heated patient and chants a healing mantra. Benefits of tuob include detoxification, cleansing the skin, muscle relaxation, increasing body metabolism, boosting the immune system, keeping mucous membranes.
  6. Presentation of the Content Arts and Crafts in the Philippines refer to the various forms of the arts that have developed and accumulated in the Philippines from the beginning of civilization in the country up to the present era. They reflect the range of artistic influences on the country's culture, including indigenous forms of the arts, and how these influences have honed the country's arts

Indigenous Religions - SlideShar

  1. Ancient indigenous beliefs Main articles: Philippine mythology, Religion in pre-colonial Philippines, Anito, Gabâ, and Kulam During pre-colonial times, a form of animism was widely practiced in the Philippines. Today, the Philippines is mostly Catholic and other forms of Christianity, and only a handful of the indigenous tribes continue to practice the old traditions
  2. Philippines was able to sustain significant anti-Japanese guerrilla activities by indigenous groups professing loyalty to a Western power.5 Near the end of the Japanese Occupation, the JMA, assessing the situ-ation in the Philippines, found it inexplicable and frustrating. As it reported to the Imperial General Headquarters: Even after thei
  3. The last census of 2010 included an ethnic variable for the first time. However, an official figure for the indigenous peoples of the Philippines has yet arrived, and it is estimated that the country's indigenous population is between 10% and 20% of the national population, which currently stands at around 102.9 million

Meanwhile, in the southern part of the country, indigenous tribes are mostly found in Mindanao and Western Visayas. In Mindanao, these existing non-Muslim indigenous groups are collectively known as the Lumad - a Cebuano term which means 'native' or 'indigenous'.There Lumad tribes comprise about 13 ethnic groups which are the Blaan, Bukidnon, Higaonon, Mamanwa, Mandaya, Manobo. 4 the impact of covid-19 on indigenous communities: insights from the indigenous navigator contents acknowledgements 3 list of acronyms 5 list of figures 6 list of tables 6 executive summary 7 1. the indigenous navigator: a useful tool at the time of the covid-19 crisis 8 2 The Philippines is a culturally diverse country with an estimated 14- 17 million Indigenous Peoples (IPs) belonging to 110 ethno-linguistic groups. They are mainly concentrated in Northern Luzon (Cordillera Administrative Region, 33%) and Mindanao (61%), with some groups in the Visayas area. The Philippine Constitution, in recognition of this diversity and under the framework of national unity. ANITISM: A SURVEY OF RELIGIOUS BELIEFS NATIVE TO THE PHILIPPINES STEPHEN K. HISLOP I. INTRODUCTION The word anitism, or the Hispano-Filipino form anitismo, though not in current usage, has been defined in Retana's glossary 1 as Asociaci6n de ideas religiosas que tiene por fundamento el culto a los anitos, citing Isabel

Religion in the Philippines Asia Societ

The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christian (mostly Roman Catholic), 10 percent Muslim, and 5 percent 'other' religions, including the Taoist-Buddhist religious beliefs of Chinese and the 'indigenous' animistic beliefs of some peoples in upland areas that resisted 300 years of Spanish colonial rule Spirituality for Indigenous Australians takes many forms. It is not possible to speak of one Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander religion, as there were many. Many Indigenous peoples refer to spirituality rather than religion and for most Aboriginal people, religious beliefs are derived from a sense of belonging to the land, the sea and nature

Indigenous religious beliefs of the Philippines

  1. This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:Indigenous religious beliefs of the PhilippinesListening is a more natural way of learning, when compared t..
  2. The indigenous people of Mindoro called Mangyan. In the Philippines the Mangyan have a hundred thousand of population and majority grown roots in Mindoro. There are some different mangyan groups called Iraya, Bangon, and Hanunoo. They are all well organized and it makes them unique
  3. INDIGENOUS GAME IN PHYS( For presentation) Traditional Filipino Games or traditional games in the Philippines are games commonly played by children, usually using native materials or instruments. Indeed, Laro ng Lahi offers salient values, characteristics and even skills enhancement which are vital to students' total development vis-a vis.
  4. 11 Indigenous Religions. The word indigenous refers to anything that is native to a particular geographical region. This includes people, cultures, languages, or species of plants or animals. The Aborigines of Australia, for example, are an indigenous people, in contrast to the European settlers who arrived on the continent long after
  5. Even though the Philippines is over 85% Catholic, it FAVORS, RESPECTS and FINANCES only the religion of Islam, not Catholicism and not any other religions in the Philippines. For some twisted reasoning, the Philippine government seems to think that to become a Muslim(Moro) is to become an indigenous person
  6. Ancient Philippine mythology varies among the many indigenous tribes of the Philippines. During the pre-Spanish era, some tribes believed in a single Supreme Being who created the world and everything in it, along with lesser deities. Others worshiped a multitude of trees in a form of animism

Native Filipino Beliefs: Religion in the Philippine

Kalinga-Apayao is one of the unique tribe in the Philippines because of the peace pact indigenous socio-political system, how they celebrated their fiesta and their inspired tattoo. The sharp-crested interlinking mountain peaks, steep side , isolated flat lands, plateau's and vale characterize the western side while the eastern section is. Indigenous religious practices were largely about livelihood, prosperity, healing, and safety. This understanding was very different from Christian theology that brought ethics and worship together The Free Philippines Powerpoint template features: 1. Intro and History slide: Start your presentation by adding the introduction about the country, it's history and evolution that is how are the people evolve in the country their tradition, culture, religion, dressing sense, etc. Add an image to enhance the quality of your presentation. 2 Indigenous Filipinos are among the many indigenous peoples (IP) who have experienced devastating destruction of their homes, imposition of settlers in their ancestral domains, and retreats to areas far from basic social services. Approximately 110 ethnic tribes lives in the Philippines, most of whom fight for their way of life for themselves. A representative of the Parlamento Indígena America said colonizers had tried to make decisions for indigenous peoples in policies, religions and law

Indigenous Religions in the Philippines - YouTub

Religious - Where many traditions in the Philippines occurred from. Palabra de Honor - One of the most valued customs in the Filipino culture. Pamamanhikan - One of the family oriented Filipino values and traditions in the Philippines related to marriage. Pakikisama - Among the best traits in the Filipino culture They safeguard the religious practices of the barangay (a type of community) and the dambana, the main term for a sacred place before Catholicism was introduced in the Philippines. Now, in the modern times, it may refer to shrines of indigenous religions in the Philippines, altar of Philippine churches, or monuments erected to remember.

Indigenous Religious Belief

PPT - A Day In A Country PowerPoint Presentation - ID:2857647

(Session 2, Paper 3, Edu 515A - Graduate Studies, University of Cebu)What is most striking about Philippine curriculum development are the implied and resulting shifts it has undergone due to changing cultural, social and political environments. The demands of Philippine society then, and those of Philippine society now, interlaced with global trends and demands, yield The Philippines is a culturally diverse country and has an estimate of 14 - 17 million Indigenous Peoples (IPs) belonging to 110 ethno-linguistic groups. A majority of these groups are found in Mindanao (61%), in Northern Luzon (33%), and a small percentage is left in the Visayas regions Profile. According to some estimates, there are close to 100 indigenous peoples, exclusive of the Muslim groups, though the exact size of the indigenous population remains unclear: while the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples estimates that there are approximately 11.3 million indigenous peoples in the Philippines, for example - a figure amounting to around 11- 12 per cent of the.

The Philippines is commonly referred to as a melting pot of western and eastern cultures. The traditional culture of the Philippines is heavily influenced by the traditions of the indigenous Austronesian people. The cultural landscape also features Spanish, American, Japanese, Arabic, and Indonesian influence. The major religions in the country. Abimbola, Wande. Religion, World Order, and Peace: An Indigenous African Perspective. Cross Currents. Sep. 2010: 307-9. Print. Kaba, Amadu Jacky. The Spread of Christianity and Islam in Africa: A Survey and Analysis of the Numbers and Percentages of Christians, Muslims and Those Who Practice Indigenous Religions.

Indigenous Education PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Indigenous peoples. Indigenous Peoples Organization in Palawan Philippines Tel: +63 048 433 65 74 Email: [email protected] Kalipunan ng Katutubong Mamamayan ng Pilipinas - Federation of Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines. Tel: +63 2 921 10 58. Legal Assistance Center for Indigenous Filipinos Tel: +63-2-372 3716 Email: [email protected] Lumad. The Philippines consist of numerous upland and lowland indigenous ethnolinguistic groups living in the country, with Austronesians making up the overwhelming majority, while full or partial Negritos scattered throughout the archipelago. The highland Austronesians and Negrito have co-existed with their lowland Austronesian kin and neighbor groups for thousands of years in the Philippine. Cultural beliefs on disease causation in the Philippines: challenge and implications in genetic counseling s conceptualization of health, as well as other life aspects, especially since the Filipino culture is a mixture of indigenous as well as imported and borrowed elements. As part geographical area, language, religious belief, manner. Saving Ifugao Weaving in the Philippines. A system of heritage ownership by the Ifugao people has helped revive Indigenous traditions and even fight the COVID-19 pandemic. Stephen Acabado is an associate professor of anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Marlon Martin heads a nonprofit heritage conservation organization in. f Bulacan Bamboocraft was established in March 2005. at Plaridel, Bulacan. The Company manufactures religious items using images made of lahars from Mt. Pinatubo, and bamboo frames decorated with different kinds and colors of ropes made of indigenous materials that can be found in the Philippines. The Company has outlets in Metro Manila.

There are also some other religions in the Philippines, including Islam, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism. Today the Philippines is the home to more than 4% of the world's Christians , according to Philip Jenkins (61).  Christianity in the Philippines has its unique characteristics and incorporates the elements of other religions A belief system born of indigenous communities in the Philippines could help protect the country's endangered species, from leopard cats to cloud rats. Why indigenous folklore can save animals. Palawan is the largest province in the Philippines and is home to several indigenous ethnolinguistic groups such as the Tagbanua, Palaw'an, Tao't Bato, Molbog, Batak, Agutaynen, and Cuyonon. These groups of people live in remote villages throughout the province that are found in mountains and coastal areas. According to the province's history, the ancestors of these indigents have. This study aimed to investigate Philippine indigenous learners' speaking difficulties in English Semantics. The objectives was to identify indicators of poor vocabulary, processing and expressing of information. It was a qualitative research through case studies of five Grade 2 Indigenous Peoples (IP) learners in Echague, Isabela, Philippines

Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. The information has been carefully selected and compiled from UNHCR's global network of field. Indigenous Creative Crafts. Living in the IT Era. People and the Earth's Ecosystems. Philippine Indigenous Communities. Philippine Popular Culture. Religions, Religious Experiences, and Spirituality. The Entrepreneurial Mind. Social Sciences and Philosophy. Share this What is it about the Philippines that makes it different from the rest of the world? Well, for one thing, it is all about their culture. Here are 11 things you should know about Filipino culture that sets them apart from any other nation on the planet Philippines - Philippines - Cultural life: Philippine society is a unique blend of diversity and homogeneity. Although geographically part of Southeast Asia, the country is culturally strongly Euro-American. Forces of assimilation have constantly worked to overcome cultural differences between the various ethnic groups that are scattered—sometimes in relative isolation—throughout the.

Churches and Sects in the Philippine

  1. The Philippines is a nation composed of several islands in the South Pacific. Within these different islands, ethnic identity has been complex throughout Philippine history. The largest ethnic.
  2. ing and plantation interests
  3. The Importance of Indigenous Cultures Indigenous cultures have been an integral part of the world since, well, the very beginning. Having maintained their culture and rich history, indigenous peoples live in harmony with the community and world around them. Although many cultural Darwinists believe otherwise, native cultures are important and.

The Indigenous PowerPoint Templates and Google Slides

INDIGENOUS PEOPLES' CORE CURRICULUM IN THE PHILIPPINES SCHEDAR D. JOCSON Department of Filipino and Philippine Literature. College of Arts and Letters . University of the Philippines Diliman. Background of the study y Presentation and Finalization of IP Core Curriculum and Core Messages. y Chapter 7 Promoting Philippine Culture and Values | 49 Chapter 7 Promoting Philippine Culture and Values Assessment The diversity of people composed of different cultural groups in the region remains a challenge. The region is home to various tribes, both the indigenous groups and those who migrated from the Visayas and Luzon regions, who live i INDIGENOUS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE PHILIPPINES CONCLUSION indigenous science is important that it helped the people in understanding the natural environment and in coping with everyday life. INDIGENOUS SCIENCE uses SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS INDIGENOUS BELIEFS guided b

10908 or An Act Mandating the Integration of Filipino-Muslim and Indigenous Peoples History, Culture and Identity in the Study of Philippine History in both Basic and Higher Education; and RA 8371 or the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) of 1997 which affirms IP rights to ancestral domains, self The Philippines is composed of three major island groups - Luzon in the north, Visayas in the middle, and Mindanao in the south. A quarter of the country's total population resides in Mindanao. Parts of Mindanao have been plagued by conflict and this has been linked to religious conflicts (Muslims vs In a Pastoral Statement in 1993, the Church deplores and condemns the present treatment by government and big business of the indigenous peoples in their disregard of the latter's rights to their ancestral domain. Our concern here must be to actively support, promote and accelerate the process of law on their behalf, and be on their. These groups ranged from various Igorot tribes, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga, Kankana-ey and Tinguian, who built the Rice Terraces. They also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with lowland Christian and Muslim Filipinos

PHILIPPINES: More People Practice Tribal Religions Today

concerned with proper applications to health, agriculture, art, mass media, religion, and other spheres of people's daily life. Virgilio Enriquez: Pioneer of Sikolohiyang Pilipino Born in the province of Bulacan, Philippines, Virgilio Gaspar Enriquez was trained by his father to speak the native tongue fluently since he was a child Courtship & Marriage, 72. Illness, beath, and Burial, 79. 4. INDIGENOUS RELIGIOUS BELIEFS.....83 The Ibanag Cosmos, 87. Time and Temporal Order, 94. because of their search for the fossilized remains of the oldest man in the Philippines. Thus the Ibanags have started to develop the idea that the first Philippine society might have lived. There are two predominantly Christian country in all of Asia (the other being East Timor). The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christian (mostly Roman Catholic), 10 percent Muslim, and 5 percent 'other' religions, including the Taoist-Buddhist religious beliefs of Chinese and the 'indigenous' animistic beliefs of some peoples in upland areas that resisted 300 years of Spanish. Philippine Indigenous Peoples' Struggle 273 legislation, seized communal lands, and eroded local self-sufficiency in the process. Lowlanders also brought in a barrage of Western cultural influences that undermined tribal ways of life to varying degrees

The Aeta (pronounced as eye-ta,), Agta or Ayta are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of Luzon, Philippines.They are considered to be Negritos, who are dark to very dark brown-skinned and tend to have features such as a small stature, small frame, curly to kinky afro-like textured hair with a higher frequency of naturally lighter hair color (blondism. The culture of the Philippines is very diverse. This is due to the colorful combination of different nations with our country. Its culture is reflected by the complexity of the history of the Philippines through the blending of Pre-Hispanic indigenous Austronesian civilizations. There are a number of countries that have influenced Philippine culture such as Spain, United States, China, India.

Dait-Cawed, Dahlialyn D.2011.The Clash of Philippine Land Laws: An Indigenous Peoples Perspective, Unpublished Thesis, National Defense College of the Philippines, Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City http//:www.un.org Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People The Lumad of Mindanao encompass many different indigenous cultures of the Philippines. These cultures offer a rare window into the everyday life and the precolonial cultures of the Philippines. Salupongan International is a non-profit organization dedicated to the empowerment of marginalized indigenous, Moro, and rural communities in Mindanao Indigenous Peoples in the world remain one of the poorest, most excluded and disadvantaged sectors of society. They continuously face different issues including discrimination, poverty and human rights abuse. In response to these challenges, the Philippine government has passed the Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA) of 1997, which affirms. Lumad, a Bisayan word for native or indigenous, refers to non-Christian and non-Muslim indigenous groups in Mindanao.In general, lumad music encompasses a wide repertoire of sounds performed for various occasions, and makes use of an extensive array of musical instruments, including the agong, the most widely distributed brass instrument among the Mindanao lumad political, social and cultural inroads of colonization, non­indigenous religions and cultures, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos. ICCs/IPs shall likewise include peoples who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, at the.

Bottignolo, B., (1998) Celebrations With the Sun: An Overview of Religious Phenomena among the Badjaos. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. Nimmo, H. A., (1972) The Sea People of Sulu: A study of Social Change in the Philippines. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company. Nimmo, H. A., (1994) Songs of Salanda and Other Stories of. The religion has changed throughout the Philippines also, with Islam being the main religion until Spain introduced Christianity. This leads to the Philippines celebrating holidays of different religions, such as Chinese New Year and Christmas. The Philippines have an Independence Day on the 12th of June After noting the need for indigenous scale construction efforts in the Philippines, the current article focuses on the development and current status of two multidimensional measures of Filipino personality constructs, plus two projects that are investigating indigenous Filipino personality structure MARIA TERESA LEPATAN, Minister at the Philippine Mission to the United Nations, in a power point presentation on the question on the progress of indigenous peoples in local governance, said that. Religion. The Philippines is unique among its neighbours in the South East Asian region in that the majority of Filipinos identify as Christian (92.5%). More specifically, 82.9% of the population identify as Catholic, 2.8% identify as Evangelical Christian, 2.3% identify as Iglesia ni Kristo and 4.5% identify with some other Christian.

The Waray people are one of the most religious people in the Philippines. Most of them belong to Roman Catholicism, while others have been converted to various Christian denominations/groups, and still a small percentage of the population practice other religion (sometimes alongside Catholicism) such as Buddhism for a few Chinese descendants in the area The Republic of the Philippines was named to honor King Philip II of Spain in 1543. Filipinos are originally from the southern part of Asia. People from countries like China, India, the United States and Spain married Filipinos resulting in a great deal of stock blending. 79 indigenous ethnic groups compose the Filipino people

filipino psych core conceptsCIP Reviewer

Indigenous Religions. A Kallawaya spiritual leader, Papa Pablo, doing a sunrise ceremony in the Cordillera Apolobamba, Bolivia. David Ducoin (Flickr). There are thousands of Indigenous cultures around the world, and each has its own distinct understanding of spirituality and spiritual practices. Unlike many non-Indigenous cultures, Native. problematic. The Philippines' physical geography has produced a highly diverse society, as shown by the presence of at least five major languages spoken in the country with more or less 80 distinct ethnic dialects. Ethnic Diversity Filipinos are products of an ethnic mix composed of Malay, Chinese and indigenous

Throughout the business and government sector, English became the dominant language, as well as the language that bridged communication gaps between regional Filipino cultural groups who did not share an indigenous language.Today, English, along with Filipino, is recognized as a national language of the Philippines Back to Article List ELOISA MAY P. HERNANDEZ When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ's life and continue reading 1) Different cultural practices in the Philippines which could affect our health. • Filipinos believe that some illnesses are caused by evil spirits that enter the body which are cast by Manga ga mud. • Manga ga mud casts spells on people if they are jealous or disliked. They take personal items such as, clothing, a brush (to.